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Modern Black Mathematicians References


References to Ancient Mathematics

note: MR = AMS Mathematical Reviews number

For sources from the Ancient Egyptians 3000 BC click on Egyptian Mathematical Papyri.

A Aaboe, Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (1964).

AMUCHMA Newsletters 1-25. The best online reference to research conducted today.

Allen, Will, W., Banneker, The Afro-American Astronomer, Books for Libraries Press, 1971.

Dieter Arnold, Building in Egypt , Oxford University, 1991.

Ascher, Marcia. Graphs in cultures. II. A study in ethnomathematics. Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 39 (1988), no. 1, 75--95. MR: 90d:01003.

M. Ascher and R. Ascher, Numbers and relations from ancient Andean quipas, Archive for History of Exact Science 8 (1976), 288-320.

A.K. Bag, Madhava's sine and cosine series, Indian Journal of History of Science 11 (1976), 54-57.

W. R. Ball, A Short Account of the History of Mathematics, Macmillan 1908. Reprinted by Dover, 1960.

M. Bernal, Black Athena, Free Association Books, 1987.

Bogoshi, Jonas; Naidoo, Kevin and Webb, John. The oldest mathematical artefact. Math. Gaz. 71 (1987), no. 458, 294. MR: 89a:01003.

Bruins, Evert M. Egyptian arithmetic. Janus 68 (1981), no. 1-3, 33--52. MR: 83a:01003.

A.B. Chace, L.S. Bull, H.P. Manning and R.C. Archibald (editors), The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, Mathematical Association of America, 1927-29 (v.1), 1929 (v.2.)

Sylvie Couchoud, Essai d'une nouvelle interpretation du premier probleme du Papyrus mathematique demotique 10520 du British Museum, in: Centaurus, 29, 1986, 1-4. (english review)

Crowe, Donald W. The geometry of African art. III. The smoking pipes of Begho. The geometric vein, pp. 177--189, Springer, New York-Berlin, 1981. MR: 84b:01004.

B. Davidson, The ancient world and Africa, Race and Class 29 (1987), 1-16.

Anta Cheikh Diop, 1967, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, Lawrence Hill and Co., Westport. Presence Africaine, Paris.

Anta Cheikh Diop, Africa's Contribution to World Civilization: The Exact Sciences, Ivan Van Sertima (editor), Nile Valley Civilizations, Journal of African Civilizations Ltd., Inc. 1985.

Paul Erdös and Ronald L. Graham, Old and New Problems and Results in Combinatorial Number Theory, L'Enseignement Mathématique. Geneva, Switzerland (1980). Page 44 - the 4/n problem

D. Epstein, Ten Algorithms for Egyptian Fractions, Mathematica in Education and Research, 4 (1995), 5-15.

Nwankwo Ezeabasili, African Science Myth or Reality, Vantage Press, 1977.

J Friberg, Methods and traditions of Babylonian mathematics. Plimpton 322, Pythagorean triples, and the Babylonian triangle parameter equations, Historia Mathematica 8 (1981), 277-318.

Paulus Gerdes and John Fauvel, African Slave and Calculating Prodigy: Bicentenary of the Death of Thomas Fuller, Historia Mathematica 17 No.2 (1990), 141-151, MR: 91h:01051.

Paulus Gerdes, On mathematics in the history of sub-Saharan Africa. Historia Math. 21 (1994), no. 3, 345--376, MR: 95f:01003.

R J Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs, Cambridge, MA. (1982).

R.J. Gillings, The volume of a truncated pyramid in ancient Egyptian papyri, The Mathematics Teacher 57 (1964), 552-555.

S.R.K. Glanville, The mathematical leather roll in the British Museum, Journal of Egyptian Archealogy 15 (1927), 232-238.

B. Gunn and T.E. Pet, Four geometric problems from the Moscow mathematical papyrus, Journal of Egyptian Archeology 15 (1929), 167-185.

Gwarzo, H. (1967). The theory of chronograms as expounded by the 18th century
Katsina astronomer-mathematician Muhammad B. Muhammad
. Research
Bulletin of the Center of Arabic Documentation, 3, (2), 116-123.

J. de Heinzelin, Ishango, Scientific American 206 (1962), June 105-116.

J Hoyrup, Babylonian mathematics, Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences Grattan-Guinness, ed., London (1994), 21-29.

Please note that we began this entire web project after reading:

George Gheverghese Joseph, The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics, Penguin Books 1991. [review] Buy the Princeton University Press edition.


other articles by George Gheverghese Joseph:

Foundations of Eurocentrism in Mathematics, Race and Class, Vol. 28, No.3, 1987, pp.13-28.

The Politics of Anti-Racist Mathematics in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Political Dimensions of Mathematics Education, (Ed. R. Noss), Institute of Education Publications, University of London, 1990.

The Politics of Anti-Racist Mathematics, European Education Journal, July 1994, pp.67-74

Foundations of Eurocentism in Mathematics, in Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in Mathematics Education, Arthur B. Powell and Marilyn Frankenstein, eds.. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1997, 61-81.

The best survey book on the topic


Joseph's home page for a complete listing of his works:

D.S. Kair (editor), The Algebra of Omar Khayyam, Teacher's Press 1931 - Reprinted by Colllege Press, 1974.

Ahmad Kani, Arithmetic in the pre-colonial Central Sudan, in Science and technology in African history with case studies from Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Zambia (pp. 33-39), Gloria Emeagwali (ed)

M. Kline, Mathematics in the Western Culture, Oxford University Press. Rreprinted by Penguin Press, 1972.

M. Kline, Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times, Oxford University Press, 1972).

Beatrice Lumpkin & Siham Zitler, Mathematicians of the Cairo Science Academy in the Middle Ages, Journal of African Civilizations, New York, Vol.3 (1981), No.2, 13p.

Beatrice Lumpkin, Hypatia and Women's Rights in Ancient Egypt, In Black Women in Antiquity, Ed. Ivan Van Sertima, New Brunswick and London: Transaction Books, 155-161 1988.

Beatrice Lumpkin, From Egypt to Benjamin Banneker: African origins of false position solutions. Vita mathematica (Toronto, ON, 1992; Quebec City, PQ, 1992), 279--289, MAA Notes, 40, Math. Assoc. America, Washington, DC, 1996, MR: 1 391 748.

Beatrice Lumpkin, Africa in the Mainstream of Mathematics History, in Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in Mathematics Education, Arthur B. Powell and Marilyn Frankenstein, eds.. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1997, 101-117.

Y. Mikami, The Development of Mathematics in China and Japan, Hafner, 1913 - Reprinted by Chelsea, 1974.

National Science Foundation, Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, Washington, DC. 1993

J. Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Cambridge University Press,1959.

R. A. Parker, Demotic Mathematical Papyri, Brown Egyptological Studies VII 1972.

S. Paramesan, Kerala's contribution to mathematics and astrononmy, Journal of Kerala Studies 7 (1980),135-147.

T.E. Peet, A problem in egyptian geometry, Journal of Egyptian Archeology 17 (1931), 100-106.

G.Robins & Ch.Shute, The Rhind mathematical papyrus: an ancient Egyptian text, London: British Museum Publications, 1987. {REVIEW}

Vivian O. Sammons, Blacks in Science and Education, Hemisphere Publishers Washington, D.C., 1989.

I. Van. Sertima, Blacks in Science, Transactions Books, 1983.

Sesiano, J. (1994). Quelques methodes arabes de construction des carres magiques impairs (some Arabic construction methods of odd magical squares). Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, 83 (1), 51-76.

van der Waerden, Publications by B.L. van der Waerden on Egypt, AMUCHMA16 (1995).

Claudia Zaslavsky, Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in Africa Culture, Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, 1973.

Claudia Zaslavsky, The Yoruba Number System, in Blacks in Science Ancient and Modern, Ivan Van Sertima, ed. New Brunswick, Transaction Books 1984, 110- 126.

There are additional references on the web at the African Math Bibliography

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