**EGYPTIAN MATHEMATICS PAPYRI**

**(and contents exhibited)
**

**There are two primary sources and a number
of secondary sources on Egyptian Mathematics. The primary sources
are the Rhind (or Ahmes) Papyrus
and the Moscow Papyrus, and between
them they contain 112 problems with solutions. Among the secondary
sources are three payri from ~1800 BC: Egyptian Mathematical Leather
Roll (a table of 26 decompositions of unit fractions); the Berlin
Papyrus (two problems of simultaneous equations - one of the 2nd
degree); the Reisner Papyrus (volume calculations).**

**The Egyptian mace
head (~3100 BC) contains a record of the winnings of war of the
Pharoah Narmer - 120,000 prisioners, 400,000 oxen, and 1,422,000
goats. It uses a number system allowing counting to continue indefinitely
by introducing, if necessary, a new symbol.**

**MOSCOW PAPYRUS was copied by an unknown scribe (~1850 BC). It was
brought to Russia during the middle of the 19th century, and is
located in the Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, and contains mathematics
problems (simple equations) and solutions.**

**The Egyptian
Mathematical Leather Roll (~1850 BC) is
a table consisting 26 decompositions into unit fractions.**

**The Berlin
Papyrus (~1800 BC) contains, among other
things, two problems in simultaneous equations, one of which is
2nd degree. They are translated.**

Problem 1(simultaneous equations)

Problem 2(simultaneous equations)

**The Reisner
Papyri (~1800 BC) consists of four fragments
of rolls containing calculations of volumes of temples.**

**The Kahun Papyrus (~1800 BC) contains six mathematical fragments. A
considerable amount of the Kahun Papyrus is still not translated.**

**The Rhind
Papyrus (also called the Ahmes Papyrus)
is named after the
British collector, Rhind, who acquired it in 1858. It was copied
by a scribe, Ahmes (or Ahmos), (~1650 BC) from another document
written ~2000 BC, which, possibly in turn, was copied from a document
from ~2650 BC (the time of Imhotep?). The Rhind Papyrus is located
in the British Museum, and contains mathematics problems and solutions.
All the problems below are translations.**

Problem 24(simple equations)

Problem 28(simple equations)

Problem 33(simple equations)

Problem 40(geometric series & simultaneous equations)

Problem 50(determining)

Problem 64(geometric series)

Problem 72(simple algebra)

Problem 79 (The Inventory Problem)(geometric series)

**The Histories. In 1984, Penguin published The Histories, by
the Greek, Herodotus (~450 BC).**

**url: **http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/Ancient-Africa/mad_ancient_egyptpapyrus.html

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