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#34 Ascher, Marcia: Graphs in cultures (II): a study in ethnomathematics; in: Archive for History of Exact Sciences, West-Berlin, Vol39, 1988, no.1, 75-95

This paper discusses and analyzes interest in continuous tracing of figures as it is evidenced in Africa among the Bushoong and Tshokwe (Angola/Zaire/Zambia region). Included are figures, statements about the cultural context, and associated geometric and topological ideas. Emphasis is on the structure of the figures and also, where possible, processes of construction are elaborated.

#35 Couchoud, Sylvia: Recherche sur les connaissances mathématiques de l'Egypte pharaonique , Institute of Egypto- logy, II University of Lyon, Lyon (France), 1983, 420 p.

Couchoud's Ph.D. thesis on mathematical in pharaonical Egypt, deals with

1) arithmetical operations and the notion of fraction, including a study of of 'red auxilaries' (pp.14-39);
2) geometry (metrology, plane figures and solids, nbt-notion) (pp.40-188);
3) procedures which are equivalent to equations and series (pp.189-330);
4) solutions of concrete problems (distribution of daily food rations, production of sandals, delivery of wood, etc.) (pp.331-371).

# 36 Djebbar, Ahmed: Le contenu de l'enseignement mathématique dans le nord de l'Afrique, au moyen-age et son roâle dans l'enseignement actuel, École Normale Supérieure, Alger (Algerie), 1988, 16 p.

After a short description of mathematical activity in north Africa during the Middle Ages, the author describes the mathematical contents taught at that time (decimal system, six arithmetical operations, polynomes and and the algebraic and geometric solution of polynomial equations).In the last part he underlines the cultural value of this rich heritage of medieval mathematics for education today in North Africa.

# 37 Gerdes, Paulus: On possible uses of traditional Angolan sand drawings in the mathematics classroom, in: Educational Studies in Mathematics, Vol.19, 1988, 3-22

"Following a brief description of the drawing tradition of the Tchokwe people (Angola), some possible uses of their pictogramms in the mathematics classroom are suggested. The examples given in this paper range from the study of arithmetical relationships, progressions, symmetry, similarity, and Euler graphs to the determination of the greatest common divisor of two natural numbers".

# 38 Gerdes, Paulus: On culture, geometrical thinking and mathematics education, in: Educational Studies in Mathematics, Vol.19, 1988, 137-162

"This article confronts a widespread prejudice about mathematical knowledge, that mathematics is 'culture- free', by demonstrating alternative constructions of euclidean geometrical ideas developed from the traditional culture of Mozambique".

# 39 Kubik, Gerhard: African space/time concepts and the tusona ideographs in Luchazi culture with a discussion of possible cross-parallels in music, in: African Music, Grahamstown (South Africa), Vol.6, 1987, 53-89

In this paper the author deals with those pictographs of eastern Angolan culture that are characterized by a highly geometrical construction and examines their space/time relationships. He shows that these drawings "flourish upon abstract principles of a mathematical nature similar to those in some older traditions of African music".

# 40 Lea, Hilda: Traditional mathematics in Botswana, in: Mathematics Teaching, London (UK), 1987, 9 p.

Reports on an investigation into traditional mathematics in Botswana carried out by University students. Old people were interviewed to ascertain how mathematical activities were carried out in the past, and how some older people do mathematics today. Contains information on counting, arithmetical operations, measurement of length, volume and time, geometrical forms.

# 41 Lumpkin, Beatrice: The Pyramids: ancient showcase of African science and technology, in: Blacks in Science; Transaction Books, New Brunswick NJ (USA), 1983, 67-83

"The pyramids and other great monuments of Egypt and the Sudan are the product of a long development of African science and technology. Their development is traced from the mud brick beginning to the great pyramids and temples. Planning of the monuments is described; examples are given of written plans, and the level of mathematics and technology required for pyramid building are discussed. Possible methods of construction of the pyramids are considered".

# 42 Lynch, B.M. and L.Robbins: Namoratunga: the first archaeo- astronomical evidence in sub-Saharan Africa, in: Blacks in Science; Transaction Books, New Brunswick NJ (USA), 1983, 51-56

"Namoratunga, a megalithic site in northwestern Kenya, has an alignment of 19 basalt pillars that are nonrandomly oriented toward certain stars and constellations. The same stars and constellations are by modern Cushitic peoples to calculate an accurate calendar. The fact that Namoratunga dates to about 300 B.C. suggests that a prehistoric calendar based on detailed astronomical knowledge was in use in eastern Africa".

# 43 Pappademos, John: An outline of Africa's role in the history of physics, in: Blacks in science; Transaction Books, New Brunswick NJ (USA), 1983, 177-196

Revises conventional assumptions about the role of Africans in the history of physics by outlining some of their contributions to measurement, mechanics, optics, astronomy, metallurgy.

# 44 Vergani, Teresa: Aplicaçaâo da análise factorial das correspondeâncias aos desenhos iniciáticos do povo Cokwe de Angola, in: Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, Lisboa (Portugal), Vol.4, 1986, 281-301

This paper gives an application of factor analysis to the study of the symbolical expression of numbers in Tchokwe drawing tradition (Angola).


1.Aballagh, Mohamed: Université de Fez, Faculté de Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Départment de Philosophie, Fez, Marocco

2.Ascher, Marcia: Mathematics Department, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York 14850, USA

3.Djebbar, Ahmed: Département de Mathématiques, Université de Paris- Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France

4.Doumbia, Salimata: Institut de Recherches Mathématiques, 08 B.P.2030, Abidjan 08, Ivory Coast

5.Fauvel, John: 5 Marshworth, Milton Keynes MK6 3DA, England

6.Gerdes, Paulus: Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Eduardo- Mondlane-University, C.P.257, Maputo, Mozambique

7.Kane, Abdoulaye E.: Départment de Philosophie, Université de Dakar, Dakar-Fann, Senegal

8.Kubik, Gerhard: Burghardtgasse 6/9, A-1200 Wien, Austria

9.Lea, Hilda: Department of Maths and Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Botswana, Private Bag 22, Gaborone, Botswana

10.Lumpkin, Beatrice: 7123 S,Crandon, Chicago IL 60649, USA

11.Shirley, Lawrence: #108, 5252 Coldwater Canyon Avenue, Van Nuys, California 91401, USA

12.Vergani, Teresa: Casa Blanca, Av. dos Bombeiros Voluntários 16, 2765 Estoril, Portugal

13.Zaslavsky, Claudia: 45 Fairview Avenue, 13-1, New York, NY 10040, USA



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