A Word from a Black Female Relativistic Astrophysicist: Setting the Record Straight on Black Holes

Date: Tue, 6 Apr 2004 21:48:57 GMT (24kb)

This Letter is written to clear up a situation, and hopefully we will learn something from it: scientifically and morally. Herein is presented a true ``historical'' scenario of events, that led to my being the first person (Williams 1991) to successfully work out the Penrose mechanism in four-dimensions (three-space momenta and energy). Before working out a solution to the Penrose mechanism: to extract energy from a rotating black hole, the Penrose mechanism (since first proposed by Roger Penrose in 1969) had been attempted by scientists over the world for nearly two decades, with little success, although making some progress. In the Penrose analysis of Williams (1991, 1995) details of the behavior of efficient Penrose relativistic scattering processes in the ergosphere are described. The reason a solution eluded other scientists before me is that there was very little known about orbits inside the ergosphere, where space and time are no longer separable, as measured by an observer at infinity (i.e., far away from the Kerr black hole). In this Letter, I describe how analytic derivations of the conserved energy and azimuthal angular momentum of particle orbits not confined to the equatorial plane allowed me to succeed where others, whose ``shoulders'' I stood on, had failed. Also, I will mention some well known scientists in the astrophysics community by name, as I discuss their involvement, and outline the facts behind an author feeling the need to set the record straight.


From: Reva Kay Williams <>
Date: Thu, 8 Nov 2001 17:01:06 GMT (141kb)

Collimated Energy-Momentum Extraction from
Rotating Black Holes in Quasars and Microquasars Using the Penrose Mechanism

Authors: Reva Kay Williams (University of Florida)
Comments: 9 Latex pp., including 3 eps figs. (aipproc.sty macros), to appear in proceedings, 20th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics (10-15 December 2000), edited by J.C. Wheeler and H. Martel, in press

For almost four decades, since the discovery of quasars, mounting observational evidence has accumulated that black holes indeed exist in nature. In this paper, I present a theoretical and numerical (Monte Carlo) fully relativistic 4-D analysis of Penrose scattering processes (Compton at radii between the marginally stable, marginally bound orbits and gamma-gamma-->$e^-e^+$ pair production at the photon orbit) in the ergosphere of a supermassive Kerr (rotating) black hole. These model calculations surprisingly reveal that the observed high energies and luminosities of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the collimated jets about the polar axis, and the asymmetrical jets (which can be enhanced by relativistic Doppler beaming effects) all are inherent properties of rotating black holes. From this analysis, it is shown that the Penrose scattered escaping relativistic particles exhibit tightly wound coil-like cone distributions (highly collimated vortical jet distributions) about the polar axis, with helical polar angles of escape varying from $0.5^o$ to $30^o$ for the highest energy particles. It is also shown that the gravitomagnetic (GM) field, which causes the dragging of inertial frames, exerts a force acting on the momentum vectors of the incident and scattered particles, causing the particle emission to be asymmetrical above and below the equatorial plane, thus appearing to break the equatorial reflection symmetry of the Kerr metric. This energy-momentum extraction model can be applied to any size black hole, irrespective of the mass, and therefore applies to microquasars as well.