Reva K. Williams

Reva Kay Williams first African American Woman Astrophysicist


place: Memphis, TN; reared in Chicago from age of 6

pre-doctoral education: A.A. (Liberal Arts), Malcolm X Jr. College, Chicago, Illinois, 1977. B.A. (Astronomy and Physics), Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 1980. M.A. (Astrophysics), Indiana University, Bloomington, 1990.

doctoral education: Ph.D. (Astrophysics), Indiana University, 1991.

Research Areas: relativistic astrophysics, general relativity, cosmology, and extragalactic astronomy.

current employment: Bennett College and the University of Florida.



Dr. Reva Kay Williams is the first person to successfully work out the Penrose Mechanism to extract energy from a black hole. She is the first Black American female Ph.D in Astrophysics.

A Word from a Black Female Relativistic Astrophysicist: Setting the Record Straight on Black Holes



Williams, R. K.,`Extracting X-Rays, Gamma-Rays, and Relativistic Electron-Positron Pairs from Supermassive Kerr Black Holes Using the Penrose Mechanism, Physical Review D, 51, No. 10, 5387-5427 (1995).

Williams, R. K., `Production of the High Energy-Momentum Spectra of Quasars 3C 279 and 3C 273 Using the Penrose Mechanism, submitted to The Astrophysical Journal May 1995; resubmitted May 1999; accepted.

Williams, R. K., Penrose Processes and the Gravitomagnetic Field, in The 8th Marcel Grossmann Meeting On Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity, Gravitation, and Relativistic Field Theories, Proceedings of The 8th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, held at The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, 22-27 June 1997 (eds. Piran, T. and Ruffini R.) 416-418 (World Scientific, Singapore. 1999).

Williams, R. K., Extracting Energy-Momentum from Rotating Black Holes Using the Penrose Mechanism, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 44, No. 6, 35 (1999).

Williams, R. K., High Energy-Momentum Extraction from Rotating Black Holes Using the Penrose Mechanism, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 31, No. 5 (1999).


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Dr. Scott Williams, Professor of Mathematics
State University of New York at Buffalo

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