Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi,
an African Mathematician in the early 1700's
Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi was a Falani from northern Nigeria. He traveled to Egypt and in 1732 he wrote a manuscript (in Arabic) of procedures for constructing magic squares up to order 11. As words of encouragement to the reader he writes:
Muhammad died in Cairo in 1741.
Note general construction methods of magic squares appeared in the countries of Islam in the 9th century, and the science of magic squares arrived there at its zenith in the 11th and 12th centuries. From the 13th century, magical and divinatary applications began to replace of mathematical study. Classical construction methods survived, however, in later treatises of a certain level, such as that by Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi.
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